Page 23 - Family Help
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                                             with cancer and they may need advice from Health
                  Nutritional supplements
                                             Specially formulated drinks, powders and foods to
                                             increase calorie intake and help weight gain.
                  Oesophagus                 The tube that runs from the mouth to the stomach.
                  Oncologist                 Specialist doctor treating cancer. A Consultant Clinical
                                             Oncologist usually treats patients with radiotherapy,
                                             chemotherapy and hormone therapy. A Consultant
                                             Medical Oncologist normally specialises in
                                             chemotherapy and hormone therapy.
                  Oncology                   Study and practice of treating cancers. Can be divided
                                             into medical, surgical and radiation oncology.
                  Palliative care            Palliative care is designed to manage symptoms rather
                                             than cure. It can be used at any stage of the illness if
                                             there are symptoms such as pain or sickness. Palliative
                                             care may help someone to live longer and to live
                                             comfortably, even if they cannot be cured.
                  Pathology                  The study of diseased tissues.
                  PET Scan                   Positron Emission Tomography. A scanner which uses a
                                             radioactive drug (tracer) which shows how the body
                                             tissues are working as well as what they look like.
                  Physiotherapist            A person who has specialised in exercises required to
                                             help patients to regain fitness following surgery.
                  PICC Line                  Percutaneous Intravenous Central Catheter – a long
                                             intravenous line going into your arm, to give antibiotics
                                             or chemotherapy.
                  Primary Cancer/ Tumour
                                             Site where the cancer started. The type of cell that has
                                             become cancerous will be the primary cancer. For
                                             example, if a biopsy from a liver, lung or breast contains
                                             cancerous cells, then the primary cancer is where these
                                             cells originate.
                  Prognosis                  The predicted or likely outcome of what might happen in
                                             a specific case of cancer.
                  Pylorus/Pyloric Sphincter
                                             The sphincter is at the bottom of your stomach (pylorus).
                                             This sometimes needs to be stretched after an
                  Radiotherapy               Cancer treatment using high-energy rays. It can take the
                                             form of ‘external beam radiation’, which is aimed to
                                             destroy the tumour and surrounding tissue or ‘conformal’
                                             radiotherapy, which is a more targeted approach to
                                             minimise radiation to the surrounding area or
                                             ‘intraluminal radiation’ which places a radioactive source
                                             close to the cancer. Gy (Gray) is a measurement unit of
                                             absorbed radiation.
                  Radiographer               Person qualified to operate radiotherapy machines and
                                             take X-rays. Radiographers specialise in either
                                             diagnostic or therapeutic functions.

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